In Astypalaia, the primary sector is limited, the soil is semi-mountainous with a small plain in the village Vathi and a 700ha Valley in Livadi. The remaining fields are scattered, individual and usually shaped in terraces with drystone walls. The agricultural products that can be found in Astypalaia are vegetables, α few fruits and the renowned sweet potatoes.
The livestock production on the island includes sheep and goat farming and beekeeping that are tailored to the geomorphological characteristics of the area. This excellent quality of the products and their cultivation practices are close to the organic. However, none of the products has been classified so far as origin or with geographical indication, due to the small scale of production. The existence of a public slaughterhouse with two slaughter lines for ovine and caprine animals and for pigs is also essential.
The agricultural land that can be cultivated is 3,700ha. The areas identified as grasslands are 34.700 ha, but only the grasslands in the Sirna islets, Ofidousa, Agia Kyriaki, Kounoupa, Zaforas, Chondro island, Glyko island, Koutsomitis, Fokionisia are valorized (total area of 13.333s ha), according to the list of grazing rights for 2013 of the Municipality of Astypalaia. The area of 53,000ha that is classified as forests does not consist of forest trees but of shrubs and/or herbaceous vegetation, which can be used in livestock breeding and beekeeping.
The cultivated agricultural land is 2,267ha but only 296ha are irrigated. The agricultural activity in terms of crop production is located in the lowland plains in the southwest and northeast of the island (Livadi and Vathi respectively). Irrigation is done by private drillings and wells, the dam and the municipal water network.
In the Olive Cultivation Register of the county, there are no records of growers in Astypalaia. There are several scattered olive trees that are not exploited, as there is no oil mill in the island.
The availability of irrigation water has favored the cultivation of vegetables and the production of excellent quality products (potatoes, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, tangerines). The products are sold in the local market of the island while a small part of the production going in the island of Kalymnos.